No 4 (2017)

Articles
PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF RUSSIA IN THE LIGHT OF THE “GREEN” GROWTH CONCEPT
Morgunov B.A., Bagin A.M., Kozeltsev M.L., Terentiev A.A.
Abstract
A number of key aspects of environmental safety of Russia and some other countries have been considered in the paper. It is shown that the reasons of many environmental issues to a significant degree had an anthropogenic origin. Taking into account environmental situation in the Russian Federation ecological safety becomes the most significant component of the national security in connection with the necessity of ensuring human health and well-being, as well as accounting of environmental aspects in the country's economic policy when economic development and environmental issues can no longer be considered separately. A special importance for providing ecological safety of the country gains necessity to consider the ongoing climate change along with full value accounting of natural capital in the system of Russia's national accounts. The article also touches upon the main aspects of "green economy" and "green growth" concepts that represent a fundamental idea of modern sustainable development, as well as a set of measures proposed within the "green" growth strategy that might be adjusted to the national context of the Russian Federation. Wide application of environmentally safe and resource-efficient technologies, low-waste and wasteless production, re-use and recycling of wastes and materials as a source of raw materials in the economy are terms of ecological security of Russia. The authors have also analyzed the experience of ensuring environmental safety of some member-countries of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in the light of "green economy" concept and considered possibilities for applying that experience for ensuring environmental safety of Russia on the basis of comprehensive integration of environmental observations in to the economic policy of the country. The article also contains recommendations on the alignment of legislative base of the country with "green" economy requirements.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):3-11
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EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF TICK-BORNE VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS EXTENSION IN THE ARKHANGELSK REGION
Sokolova O.V., Chashchin V.P., Popova O.N., Buzinov R.V., Pasynkova M.M., Gudkov A.B.
Abstract
The regional characteristics of the epidemic process and the incidence rates of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Arkhangelsk region have been examined in the paper. In the period 2005 -2015 the annual TBE incidence rates per 100 thousand population were from 2,0 to 5,4 times higher as compared to the corresponding averages reported for the whole population of the Russian Federation. The most possible causes of the increased incidence rates of tick-borne viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region and temporal trends in its changes as well as potential risk factors of TBE extension have been stated. The vectors of viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region are represented by two types of ixodic ticks: Ixodes persulcatus (the "taiga" tick) and Ixodes ricinus ("forest" tick), the Ixodes persulcatus constitutes over 99 % of their total number. Spring-summer season is typical for TBE cases occurrence which is associated with higher tick activity in this area. The average tick infection rate for the period was 7.8 %. The cases of TBE are reported to occur mainly in urban citizens; and lethality rate due to TBE reached 4.3%. Since 2010 decrease in the TBE morbidity has being observed in the Arkhangelsk region. Reducing morbidity can be connected to the increase in the proportion of vaccinated persons, which reached 6.3 % of the total population of the Arkhangelsk region. The main indices of the acaricide treatment volume which increased since 2005 nearly 6 times, from 128.2 to 740.0 hectares have been stated. Considering the fact that the area of acaricide treatment in the region increases every year, and the number of persons seeking medical advice concerning tick bites remains high it is necessary to control the effectiveness of acaricide treatment regularly. Core measures to decrease the tick-borne viral encephalitis conducted by the Regional Office of Federal Service for Consumers' Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing as well as ways for further research have been introduced.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):12-19
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CHARACTERISTICS OF CHIlDRENS’ PHYSICAl DEVElOPMENT IN YAMAlO-NENETS AUTONOMOUS OKRUG
Efimova N.V., Mylnikova I.V.
Abstract
Physical development is one of the indicators characterizing the health of children and reflects the risk factors of the impact of its infringement. The article presents the results of a comprehensive assessment of physical development of Nenets-children (7-17 years old) born and residing on the territory of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. It was found that in all age groups among boys and girls there is prevalence of persons with a harmonious physical development and normal weight. Difference from common patterns peculiar to this period of ontogenesis has been revealed, - "the first crossing of growth curves" in the Nenets-children was recorded at the age of 14 years. In (63,4 ± 4,9) % of surveyed vital capacity of lungs lags far behind the proper values. The value of life index in (86,1 ± 2,9) % of children indicates delay in a body capacity formation and in development of chest and back muscles. The suggestion about the adaptive nature of vital capacity reduction was made. Somato-typological analysis revealed among surveyed persons with asthenic somato-type. Thus, (59,8 ± 4,2) % of the Nenets-children have asthenic somato-type, (36,5 ± 4,1) % - normosthenic, (3,7 ± 1,6) % - hypersthenic somato-types. Comparative analysis showed that anthropometric indices of boys and girls under 14 years old had similar values. The research conducted demonstrates necessity to create regional tables of suite of metrics of physical development for ethnic groups of the population.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):20-25
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AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AS A SYNDROME OF MENTAl IMMUNODEFICIENCY IN THE 4D-MIRROR OF MENTAl MEDICINE
Sidorov P.I.
Abstract
Conceptual and methodological, instrumental and technological resources of mental medicine (MM) in the diagnostics and treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are systematized in the article. Mental medicine is a system synthesis of clinical psychiatry (thesis) and anti-psychiatry (antithesis) that continuingly and harmoniously integrates preventive and correctional, treatment and rehabilitation approaches. With the creation of mental medicine, anti-psychiatry century ends and a new stage in the development of clinical neuroscience begins based on a synergetic multidimensional methodology. Isolation of the mental immunodeficiency syndrome (MIS) is justified as the pathogenic mental disorder of mental immunity (MI). MI is biopsychosociospiritual matrix of identity and the basis of personal security. Identity is self-determination (for children self-perception) of an individual in terms of his physical and mental, social and moral traits. The synergetic functional diagnostics (SFD) is proposed as an expanded mental 4D-mapping, which gives not only clinical, psychological, social and spiritual evaluation of phenomenology, but also helps to identify the preserved and potentially claimed new resources of personalized assistance and adaptation enhancement. Definition of standard functions of MI is given. Clinical phenomenology of MIS is provided manifesting in disorders of identity and communication. MIS can be congenital and early, childhood and late, acquired or induced. The technological platform of mental medicine is revealed, synergetically accumulating molecular genetic and medical-biological, social and psychological, spiritual and moral resources that increase the effectiveness of the early intervention due to the screening batteries of mental 4D-mapping and multidisciplinary brigade block-modular assistance programs. Pathogenetic treatment of MIS is sanogenetic therapy - adaptive engineering and management of mind and health for the recovery of mental immunity. The article gives examples of the positive regional experience in the implementation of pilot models. Autism as a "mystery of the nineteenth century" was isolated and developed by many prominent psychiatrists. The modern ASD became "a problem of the twentieth century", breaking out of the nosocentric boundaries of the clinical psychiatry. The demand for a synergetic scientific-practical paradigm of the MM has emerged, particularly in the made by us allocation of MI and MIS, having become one more step that makes neurosciences closer to the tomorrow "opening of the XXI century".
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):26-31
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FAMIlY-CENTRED HEAlTH CARE IN A PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAl FOR CHIlDREN WITH SUICIDAl BEHAVIOR PHENOMENON
Bebchuk M.A.
Abstract
The study aims at identifying the organizational and methodological aspects of family-centered care in a psychiatric hospital for children with suicidal behavior. The objectives of the study were to assess the readiness of the parents/legal representatives to participate in correctional and rehabilitation activities in the period of hospitalization of the child, identify the key needs of the family, to formulate practical recommendations on organizational and methodological issues of family-centered care for children with suicidal behavior. The study involved all the girls (57), hospitalized in January-October 2014 about suicidal symptoms in the only psychiatric children hospital in Moscow, and 98 of their parents/legal representatives. There were used anamnestic (including the study of family history a suicide), analysis if diseases histories, clinical and psychopathological methods, system analysis of the level of family functioning and parental questionnaire during the child's hospitalization. 98 % of the parents are willing to be involved in medical activities in a varying degree. Main needs of majority of families are as follows: "Information about the state of the child, especially the development, diagnosis and prospects" (98 %) and "Training in new forms of behavior and education, which can be used at home after discharge" (92 %). Methodological basis and recommendations on the formation of organizational conditions of family-centered medical care for children with suicidal behavior were obtained and stages of family therapy were described. Readiness and needs of the family to participate in correctional and rehabilitation activities in children suggests the need to include families into prevention and treatment of suicidal behavior in children. Implementation of the concept of family-centered health care for a child with suicidal behavior suggests revising the rules adopted in the practice of child psychiatrists, psychotherapists and medical aid organization as a whole. Using not only the rehabilitation potential of the child but also his micro-social environment (the family) creates conditions for qualitative changes in the prevention, treatment and social adaptation of children with suicidal symptoms.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):32-37
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POPUlAR INITIATIVES TO PERPETUATE THE MEMORY OF M.V. lOMONOSOV
Butorina T.S.
Abstract
The formation of M.V. lomonosov personality is specified due to the peculiarities of the socio-cultural environment of the Russian North. The scientific heritage of the first Russian academician has tragic history and fate. His people's memory was kept by progressive figures of the region, the priests, who suggested the need to explore the heritage and the biography of the scientist and raise up a monument to him in Arkhangelsk. A significant role in commemoration and exploring the scientific heritage of lomonosov had his anniversaries: 1865, 1911, 1961, 1986, 2011. The paper first examines the history of popular initiatives of northerners to commemorate the first Russian academician - M.V. lomonosov. On the basis of historical materials such selfless initiatives as: the perpetuation of the scientist's name; educational initiatives; support for young people seeking education and science; strategic initiatives are compiled. The article presents, in chronological order, their various forms: fundraising money for scientist monuments; promotion of lomonosov awards and scholarships; organization of lomonosov readings; creation of lomonosov Fund; the formation of the Arkhangelsk region as the university center, etc. The author shows the development of lomonosov movement in the region as a popular initiative. The paper reveals the perspective popular initiative to create at lomonosov homeland the historical, cultural and scientific complex "lomonosov manor", which branches may be placed in the different areas of the region.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):38-41
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ECOPSYCHOlOGY OF EDUCATIONAl ENVIRONMENT: DESIGN AND MONITORING APPROACHES
Kislyakov P.A.
Abstract
In the article actualized the problem of human ecology in modern conditions. The main study approaches of environmental psychology "man-environment" relationship have been generalized. Educational environment as a set of spatially-objective, social, information, psychological and pedagogical influences and conditions of personality formation serves as an object of the analysis. The risk factors that negatively affect the development and health of students have been generalized. Functions of educational environment: adaptive, formative, educational have been discovered. The approaches to education environment monitoring: expertise and diagnostics have been described. The results of empirical study of the ecology of the university educational environment, conducted via questionnaires have been presented. The study revealed the risks of the educational environment of the university, as well as its comfort degree. Ecopsychological models (segments) which conceptualizes the relationship of the subjects of education and educational environment: health-saving environment, tolerant environment, psychologically safe environment, safe information-virtual environment, constructive communicative (verbal) space, creative environment, ecological environment have been described. The eco-psychological designing of educational environment will allow to minimize social risk factors, negative psychophysical impact and provide students with adequate conditions for development, safety, identity, self-actualization.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):42-50
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PREVAlENCE OF POTENTIAllY ADVERSE DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN HOSPITAlS OF WEST KAZAKHSTAN
Zhamalieva L.M., Mussina A.Z., Smagulova G.A., Seitmaganbetova N.A., Uvalieva N.T., Nikolayenko N.V., Grjibovski -.M.
Abstract
Consequences of medical drugs use have been a subject of scientific research, both in terms of long-term effect on the gene pool of populations and immediate effects on human health. Drug-drug interactions (DDI) is an important and still insufficiently recognized cause of medical errors and costs for the healthcare system. We have studied the prevalence and structure of DDI in hospitals of West Kazakhstan. We performed a retrospective analysis of pharmacotherapy in a systematic sample of 730 patients with cardiovascular diseases treated in the hospitals of Aktobe, Uralsk, Atyrau cities in 2014. Potentially dangerous DDI were identified using Drug Interaction Checker source (FDA). The prevalence of major and moderate potential DDI and their structure were studied. Associations between DDI and other studied variables were estimated using odds ratios (OR) and chi-squared tests. For all estimates 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. We found a high prevalence of major and moderate DDI (53,8 (95 % CI 50,9-58,3) % and 88,1 (95 % CI 85,590,3) %, respectively. We found out that 53,8 % of patients were treated with at least one potentially inappropriate combination. The effect of age (OR 1,8, p < 0,001, 95 % CI 1,4-2,5) and polypragmasy (OR 6,0, р < 0,001, 95 % CI 2,7-13,1) on potentially dangerous DDI were revealed. Adverse drug effects were diagnosed in 4,1 % of patients, they were more frequently observed in patients with more prescriptions (р = 0,001). The most frequent drugs creating a dangerous combination were spironolactone, ACE inhibitors, enoxaparinm sodium, fondaparinux sodium, clopidogrel, potassium chloride, sartana.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):51-57
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NUMERICAl ANAlYSIS OF STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY OF THE BIOMECHANICAl SYSTEM «BONE-APPARATUS»
Matveev R.P., Labudin B.V., Morozov V.S., Orlov A.O.
Abstract
Influence of various factors (conditions) on strength and stiffness of the biomechanical system of "machine-bone" was studied using application of extrafocal rod osteosynthesis in cases of long bone fractures. The problem solution of stability of the concerned biomechanical system in which the interaction of "bone-apparatus" is presented in the form of an elastic system consisting of two absolutely rigid links (broken bone), interconnected by elastically deformable elements (unit with titanium rods) having one (the flexural) degree of freedom is shown. Factors influencing the strength characteristics of the web have been identified on the basis of the equation obtained in the course of solving the stability problem. The modeling relationship of the strength characteristics of the rod from its own weight of a person (the load), the rod length and angle of introduction pegs to the longitudinal axis of the bone in the form of full factorial experiment allowed to analyze the significance of their impact. Numerical analysis of the dependence P = f (0, C, l) has shown that the greatest impact on output parameter P (load) has a C (coefficient of rigidity). The significance of impact of this factor exceeds the value of the impact of Θ and l about 6 and 2.6 times respectively. The results are based on previously completed scientific and theoretical research system of "bone-apparatus" strength and stability and laboratory and practical results.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2017;(4):58-64
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