No 1 (2015)

Articles
THE MULTIFACTORIAL ASSESSMENT OF CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Manzhurov I.L., Lezhnin V.L.
Abstract
Objective: Assessment of effects of environmental factors on development of lung cancer. Methods: We applied a multiple factor approach to designing the epidemiologic study. The object of our research was the town of Karpinsk, the Sverdlovsk Region, situated within the environmental radiochemical area with a high radon potential characterized by a moderate level of contamination of the natural environment and high cancer incidence rates among the local population. The case group included 142 lung cancer patients and the control group consisted of 220 people without cancer. We analyzed health effects of 12 biological, social, occupational, and environmental factors. We used the deterministic algorithms of pattern recognition for the multifactor data processing. Results: We have established the power and nature of the effect of each factor under study on development of lung cancer. Using mathematical modeling, we assessed efficiency of hypothetical scenarios of some risk factors correction. Conclusions: Among the lung cancer environmental risk factors in Karpinsk, indoor air pollution with carcinogenic brown coal combustion products was of great importance; the contribution of indoor exposure to radon isotopes was low (0.9 %).
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):3-9
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PREDICTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES RISK AMONG ASSEMBLERS OF VESSEL METAL HULLS OF MACHINE BUILDING PLANT
Sokolova L.A., Popova O.N., Kalinina M.M., Bogdanov M.Y., Kocheshova G.F., Gudkov A.B.
Abstract
In the article, there have been presented the results of the occupational diseases risk prediction in assemblers of vessel metal hulls (VMH) of the Northern Region Machine Building Plant. Assessment of the VMH assemblers working conditions has been made on the ground of the materials of the assessment of workplaces and sanitary and hygienic characteristics of the working conditions composed for the patients suspected of having occupational diseases according to Guidance Р 2.2.2006-05. The occupational diseases risk has been predicted on the ground of the hygienic criteria of assessment of working conditions, as well as the regulatory and methodical documents approved in the established procedure. It has been determined that according to the harmful factors impact stated in Guidance Р 2.2.2006-05, the VMH assemblers working conditions were referred to hazard classes 3.2 and 3.3 described by high antecedent risk of occupational diseases in the period of working activity, what was confirmed by the long-term average annual levels of occupational morbidity that significantly (p<0.001) exceeded similar indices in the control group (employees of the machine workshops). On the ground of the made assessment of the working conditions and the results of the occupational diseases antecedent risk prediction, managerial decisions focused on preservation of the VMH assemblers health should foresee implementation of top-priority measures for reduction of local vibration and noise generated by hand tools, as well as optimization of microclimate parameters and labor burden reduction.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):10-14
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PROBLEMS OF TRANSMERIDIAN FLIGHTS
Kiku P.F., Khotimchenko M.Y., Nagirnaya L.N.
Abstract
The presented review of scientific literature is devoted to biomedical research on the problem of transmeridian flights, as well as to search of ways of rapid overcome of desynchronosis occurring across time zones. It has been established that desynchronization of circadian oscillations of physiological functions after transmeridian flights was inevitable, the degree of its negative impact on the human body depended on individual biorhythms and can be corrected by proper choices of vital activity regime in the former and new time zones. The need in further research in the sphere of development and assessment of biological activity of the tools contributing to human rapid adaptation to changing time zones has been shown. One of the areas of research is development of means of correction based on preparations (and their components) of natural origin for optimization of functional state of bodies of humans after transmeridian flights who are ready to carry out their professional tasks in the shortest possible time.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):15-20
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INFLUENCE OF SUBSTANCE πQ1983 ON ENERGY METABOLISM AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION DURING ACUTE EXOGENOUS HYPOXIA
Sosin D.V., Yevseyev A.V., Pravdivtsev V.A., Parfenov E.A.
Abstract
The assessment of standard energy metabolism has been measured in rats after per os introduction of a new antihypoxic metal-complex substance πQ1983 with a dose 100 mg/kg. The well-known antihypoxant amthizole was used as a substance for comparison in the same dose. It had been established that 90 min after using πQ1983, activity of body energy processes decreased from 194.4 ± 0.7 kcal/day/kg (the control group) to 74.5 ± 0.5 kcal/day/kg (πQ1983), but the effect of amthizole was not reliable. It has also been revealed that both substances (πQ1983 significantly, amthizole slightly) decreased the rats' oxygen consumption rate during rising acute exogenous hypoxia that could increase the animals' resistance to the oxygen deficit. Probably, the decreased oxygen consumption was caused by the inhibitory effects of the studied substances, especially that of substance πQ1983, on body energy-intensive processes.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):21-27
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EFFICIENCY OF NEW PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVS INFLUENCE ON PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY OF RATS IN THE TEST ‘SWIMMING TO FAILURE’
Zobov V.V., Nazarov N.G., Vyshtakalyuk A.B., Galyametdinova I.V., Semenov V.E., Reznik V.S.
Abstract
There have been studied effects of xymedon and six new pyrimidine derivatives, that are close and distant analogs of xymedon, on rats' working capacity in the test "swimming to failure". It has been shown that a single administration of the studied compounds did not have a statistically significant effect in the test. In the conditions of multiple intraperitoneal administration of the studied pyrimidine derivatives, the compound L-ascorbate, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4.6-dimethyl-1.2-dihydropyrimidine-2-one had the lowest toxicity and the most pronounced actoprotective effect. Introduction in the dose of 20 mg / kg caused a statistically significant increase 440 % in the duration of swimming of rats on the 14th day of the experiment compared with the control group. Multiple administration of the compound in the conditions of physical load did not affect leucopoiesis, but stimulates erythropoiesis resulting in an increase in the number of erythrocytes and a hemoglobin level. The substance introduction under mixed exhausting loads prevented such changes of blood biochemical parameters as reduction of glucose, increased of urea and lactic acid levels, what indicates improvement in the animals' tolerability of loads and an anti-catabolic effect of the compound. Absence of hepato-and cardiotoxic effects of the substance has been shown.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):28-35
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COMBINED CRANIOCEREBRAL AND SKELETAL INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION
Firsov S.A., Matveev R.P., Vilova T.V.
Abstract
The article has emphasized the problem of injuries related to alcohol consumption. An analysis of contemporary research on this topic and own data have been given. Intoxicated patients had more severe injuries, a more serious course of illness, a greater incidence of complications and mortality. Alcohol intoxication provoked formation of delayed intracranial hematomas. The tendency to form multiple intracranial hematomas and subarachnoid hemorrhages in alcohol abusers was explained by atrophic processes in the brain, subdural spaces extension, toxic lesions of the cerebral vessels. Intoxicated patients should be regarded as a high-risk group in terms of availability of severe traumatic brain injuries, as their condition
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):36-39
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THEORETICAL-CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO STUDY OF SOCIAL PRACTICE PHENOMENON IN FOREIGN AND NATIONAL SOCIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
Smirnova E.A.
Abstract
The article has presented the results of a comparative analysis of methodological foundations for studying the social practice phenomenon in foreign and national sociological science. The aim of the study was to understand social practice from the perspective of the Western theoretical and conceptual approaches to its study and the terminology used in national medical-sociological studies of health and healthcare. Based on the analysis of 50 scientific publications on the research topic, there has been given a characteristic of the main definitions used in theoretical and empirical studies of social practice, the identity of the concept of social practice has been revealed, the laws of social practices formation and development have been described, their relationship with social institutions and the socialization process has been analyzed. There have been shown the works of the Russian researchers dedicated to studying the healthcare system as a complex of social practices that confirmed their scientific validity and value for formation and development of their own scientific traditions in Russian Sociology of Medicine.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):40-48
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SYNERGETIC BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIO-SPIRITUAL CONCEPTION OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION
Sidorov P.I., Sovershaeva E.P.
Abstract
Arterial hypertension (AH) is an ultimate non-infectious pandemic in human history that determines the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality structure. Despite significant advances in understanding the disease pathogenesis and modern strategies in hypertension management, it is still one of the most relevant medical social problems that require development of a multidisciplinary approach to etiopathogenesis and clinical picture, preventive-correctional and medical-rehabilitation aid. A synergetic conception of AH including three prenosological fractals: predisposition - hypertensive family, latent - hypertensive diathesis, initial - prehypertension, and three nosological fractals: onset of disease, chronization and outcome, has been proposed. The mechanisms of development of the AH social epidemic and the program of medical-psycho-socio-spiritual aid have been grounded.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):49-60
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KARELIAN FRONT HOSPITAL BASE IN 1941-1945
Bykov V.P., Andreeva A.V.
Abstract
The Karelian Front hospital base consisting of 31 hospitals with the total number of beds equal to 13 700 was deployed in the Arkhangelsk region during the Great Patriotic War. Wounded and sick patients from the front hospitals of the Kola Peninsula were evacuated by railway, sea and air transport. The beds were specialized: trauma and surgical - 64.0 %, therapeutic and tuberculous - 22.8 %, ophthalmic and otorhinolaryngological - 13.2 %. Most hospitals were located in adapted office buildings and educational institutions. The load on one doctor was from 70 to 80 patients. Professors and assistants of the Archangelsk State Medical Institute worked as consultants. 68 860 of wounded and sick were treated during the war years. 48.5 % of the patients recovered and returned to duty, 19.8 % were discharged from the Army due to disability, 29.2 % were evacuated to hinterland hospitals. In-patient mortality was 2.54 %.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(1):61-64
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