Vol 29, No 8 (2022)

Cover Page

Full Issue


Impact of air pollution with particulate particles on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (review)

Nakhratova O.V., Tsygankova D.P., Bazdyrev E.D.


This review analyzes the current understanding of the relationship between air pollutants and the development of general and cardiovascular mortality. Data from studies highlighting the effects of long- and short-term exposure to particulate matter on the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, pulmonary embolism, and atherosclerosis, as well as on hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality from these causes are summarized. Based on a review of studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar, the current paper outlines the putative pathophysiological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure influences the cardiovascular system (CVS), primarily represented by oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipid metabolism disorders, autonomic dysfunction, and impaired hemostatic system. Attention is focused on the impact of short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter on the CVS. The consequences of short-term exposure include the development of myocardial infarction, an increase in the frequency of hospitalization for chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, an increase in mortality from stroke and the risk of sudden death, and the development of pulmonary embolism. Arterial hypertension, aggravation of coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, development of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, and increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease can be considered the consequences of long-term exposure to particulate matter. Raising awareness regarding the impact of air pollutants on the CVS has been recognized as the leading approach toward reducing mortality from cardiovascular disease.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(8):531-546
pages 531-546 views

A scientometric study of articles on health effectiveness in Russia

Shelygin K.V., Lozhkina L.I.


BACKGROUND: The relevance of this study lies in the systematic analysis of scientific and methodological approaches to the study and evaluation of health care as a multidimensional and multi-level system.

AIM: To systematize methodological approaches to the study of the effectiveness of the health care system in the Russian Federation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective categorical analysis of original studies belonging to the genre “scientific article” and devoted to the effectiveness (quality) of the health care system in Russia, published in domestic scientific periodicals from the period 2011 to 2021, was carried out. The categorical analysis included the following parameters: “healthcare system”, “efficiency”, “methods” and revealed 144 publications. The usual selection process excluded 17 publications. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 sources were selected. All original studies were divided into either medical and non-medical according to the author's specialization. The analysis allowed for the revelation and parameterization of scientific-methodological tendencies of researches on public health effectiveness according to statistical-structural-dynamic characteristics of researches and specialization of the author (medical and non-medical specialization). The main methods used in the original research were analyzed.

RESULTS: The structure of the scientific publications was dominated by the results of original research (64%). No systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified. The increase in the dynamics of publication activity on the stated topic was due to original research. Most of the trials were conducted at the meso-level (70.8%). There were virtually no works devoted to the results of original research conducted at the countrywide level. A set of sociological, medical-statistical and economic methods was used as the main research tool for studying efficiency. Sociological methods and approaches for analyzing official medical statistics prevailed in “pure” form. Demography and mathematical modeling methods were the least used. No quantitative differences were found in the authors' specialization. Differences in the authors' gravitation toward the study of different types of efficiency were observed depending on the researchers' specialization, as well as the frequency of studies on economic and social efficiency in their study at the meso- and macro-level and the use of methodological apparatus in the study of these types of efficiency.

CONCLUSION: The core of the publication activity is formed by the results of original research obtained at the meso-level, with research conducted at the macro-level being practically absent. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were completely absent. There was homogeneity in the use of different types of effectiveness research methods. The findings of this study suggest that there is a practical need for quantitative and qualitative systematization of the experience gained in studying health system efficiency, particularly at the national level, as a prerequisite for effective planning of its development.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(8):547-561
pages 547-561 views


Evaluation potential hazard of molybdenum (VI) oxide nanoparticles for human health

Zemlyanova M. ., Zaitseva N.V., Stepankov M.S., Ignatova A.M.


BACKGROUND: The expanding scope of molybdenum (VI) oxide (MoO3 NPs) nanoparticle application has increased the risk of developing pathological disorders in the exposed population due to the negative effects of this nanomaterial. As such, there is a need to assess the potential hazard of MoO3 NPs to human health.

AIM: To determine the degree of potential danger of MoO3 nanoparticles for human health.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The potential hazard of MoO3 NPs was assessed in accordance with MR 1.2.2522-09. A comparative assessment of the physical parameters of nano- and micropowder MoO3 particles (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) in terms of size, specific surface area, total pore volume, and shape was conducted based on the results of our own experimental studies. Generalization of information on physicochemical, molecular biological, cytological, physiological and ecological properties was performed according to the data presented in the scientific literature. Based on the predictive-analytical modeling of the properties of MoO3 NPs, the potential hazard coefficient (D) and the coefficient of incompleteness of data assessment (U) was calculated.

RESULTS: Our findings showed that 84.17% of the nanopowders consists of spherical particles <100 nm in size with an average diameter of 58.80 nm, a specific surface area of 3.66 m2/g, and a total pore volume of 0.0133 cm3/g. Micropowders consist of prismatic particles that are 57.99 times larger in size and but 1.17 and 1.18 times smaller in specific surface area and total pore volume compared to the MoO3 NPs, respectively. MoO3 NPs enhance the generation of intracellular free radicals, accumulate in cells, damage organelle membranes, cause DNA strand breaks, affect gene expression and proteomic profile, which leads to cell death. The toxic effects of MoO3 NPs in vivo are showed in pathomorphological changes in the tissues of the liver, organs of the reproductive system, changes in blood parameters, death of exposed animals, and long-term effects. It has been established that MoO3 NPs have an average degree of potential hazard to human health (D=1.750), the assessment is statistically significant (U=0.147).

CONCLUSION: The obtained results should be taken into account to improve the methodology for the sanitary regulation of nanomaterials in environmental objects and develop preventive measures for workers and populations exposed to MoO3 NPs.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(8):563-575
pages 563-575 views

Relationship between the incidence of socially significant diseases and sanitary and ecological parameters of the environment throughout municipal entities in the Mari El Republic

Korotkov P.A., Trubyanov A.B., Gismieva A.I., Avdeeva A. ., Zagaynova E. .


BACKGROUND: There is a formal contradiction in the Republic of Mari El between the “favorable ecological situation in localities of the Republic and the above-limit morbidity rates caused by the negative impact of habitat factors.” As such, there is a need to conduct a specified quantitative examination using modern econometric approaches.

AIM: By using panel data, to identify and substantiate statistical relations between the morbidity rate of the population in municipal entities of the Mari El Republic and ecological parameters of the environment (physical and chemical and bioindication indicators).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study used the panel data on morbidity rates of the population, including children, adolescents, and adults, and environmental pollution across 15 municipal entities within the Mari El Republic from 2009–2019, as well as spatial data on fluctuating asymmetry for 2019 that were based on a field study and integrally reflect the environmental quality. Statistical analysis for dynamic panel data involved cointegration and modeling with a mechanism of balance adjustment, whereas that for spatial data involved nonparametric correlation analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted using the statistics packages EViews 11 and Stata 16 IC.

RESULTS: It was established that over the long term the increasing pollution level of drinking water from the distribution network and the atmosphere has a statistically significant effect (χ2=79.79; p <0.001) on the increase in figures of congenital abnormalities (malformation), deformations and chromosome breakages in children aged 0 to 14 years. Adjustment of the indicator of congenital abnormalities (malformation), deformations and chromosome breakages in children aged 0 to 14 years with a deviation from the equilibrium trajectory occurs in about 2 years. It is required to develop measures to systematically provide the population with good-quality drinking water and reduce emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere. Stable positive correlations of long-term average annual morbidity rate of the whole population and the adult population aged 18 and older being ill with malignant tumors are associated with the change in environmental quality (indicators of the fluctuating asymmetry in the impact zone).

CONCLUSION: A panel regression model was designed that explains the change in time of the indicator of congenital abnormalities (malformation), deformations and chromosome breakages in children aged 0 to 14 years within one municipal entity with the increasing pollution level of the atmosphere and drinking water. Being ill with malignant tumors is related to a complex of various stress factors (varying between the human impact and climate change).

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(8):577-585
pages 577-585 views

Clinical manifestations of decreased ovarian reserve in premenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

Salimova M.D., Danusevich I.N., Nadelyaeva Y.G., Lazareva L.M., Atalyan A.V., Novikova E. ., Sholokhov L.F., Rashidova M.A., Suturina L.V.


AIM: To estimate clinical manifestation of decreased ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age from Eastern Siberia.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1119 women aged 18 to 40 years who underwent an annual preventive medical examination at their place of work were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study performed in 2017–2019 in Irkutsk Region and Buryat Republic (Russia). Among the 1119 women, 907 aged 31.78±5.13 years were included in the study, after which clinical, instrumental, and laboratory research methods and statistical analysis were utilized. Among the 907 women included in the study, 117 (12.9%) had <5 follicles per ovary and were diagnosed with decreased ovarian reserve (DOR). The laboratory study showed that 56 of the 117 (47.8%) women had an antimullerian hormone (AMH) level below 1.2 ng/mL, the average value of which was 0.53±0.43 ng/mL.

RESULTS: In women with reduced AMH levels, a shortening of the menstrual cycle (p=0.0187) and high parity were observed. Moreover, premature ovarian failure was diagnosed in 4 of the 117 (3.4%) patients with a reduced number of antral follicles.

CONCLUSION: The frequency of women with DOR in the Eastern Siberia region based on one AFC criterion was 12.9%. Only 3.4% of women satisfied all criteria for premature ovarian failure. The average age of women with signs of DOR in this region was 35.12±3.87 years and did not depend on ethnicity. Moreover, 47.8% of the women with an AMH <1.2 had a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level of 12.14 ME/mL, while 52.2% of the those with AMH >1.2 had a FSH level of 5.91 ME/mL. Patients with AMH <1.2 can be characterized by high parity in the anamnesis and shortening of the menstrual cycle.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(8):587-597
pages 587-597 views

Fluorine excretion in children at various levels of exposure to emissions from aluminum production

Efimova N.V., Lisetskaya L.G., Savchenkov M. .


BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of development of disorders caused by excess or lack of fluorine, information regarding the levels of exposure and excretion of fluorine by various routes of intake is important.

AIM: To determine the features of fluoride ion excretion in children exposed to different levels of fluorine compounds contained in emissions from aluminum production.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observation groups were formed from 245 and 148 people exposed to high and low levels of fluorine compounds, respectively. For comparison, a control group of 155 children living in cities who had no industrial sources of fluorine emission in their territory was created. Daily urine samples, which reflect the level of excretion, were used as a biomaterial. Analysis of fluoride ion content was conducted using the potentiometric method with a fluorine selective electrode. Means were compared using Student's t-test, whereas medians were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction. Correlation with age was assessed using the Spearman coefficient.

RESULTS: No significant differences in the average urinary excretion of fluorine and proportion of children whose excretion exceeds the reference regional levels were observed among children living in the industrial centers of the Irkutsk region. A comparative assessment of fluorine excretion among children with the highest toxicant content showed that those in the high-exposure subgroup had a 1.4 times higher average fluorine content compared to the control group (p <0.001). The maximum values of fluoride ion excretion in children living in the areas affected by emissions from large aluminum production enterprises are 2.4 times higher than the maximum in the unexposed group.

CONCLUSION: Fluoride ion excretion via urine in children living within industrial centers was directly associated with the level of inhalation exposure but inversely associated with age.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(8):599-607
pages 599-607 views


Corrigendum: Element content in human hair of residents from Simferopol city (Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(6). doi: 10.17816/humeco90984)

Evstafeva E.V., Bogdanova A.M., Tymchenko S.L., Baranovskaya N.V., Yusupov D.V., Evstafeva I.A., Makarova A.S.


We found mistakes in the article "Element content in human hair of residents from Simferopol city" published in the "Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology)" journal (volume 29, issue 6, doi: https://doi.org/10.17816/humeco90984) by E.V. Evstafieva and co-authors. Table 1 incorrectly indicates references in the column "Comparison range limits".

The authors team and the editorial board of the journal are sure that the mistakes could not significantly affect the perception and interpretation of the published work by readers, and should not become the reason for retraction. The publisher made changes to the electronic version of the published article and re-published it on the journal's website instead of the version with errors.

The authors team and the editorial board apologize to the readers for the mistakes made.

Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2022;29(8):609-611
pages 609-611 views

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