No 3 (2015)

Articles
THE DEPOPULATION OF INDIGENOUS AND SMALL-NUMBERED PEOPLES AND PROBLEM OF PRESERVING OF ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE NORTH-EAST OF RUSSIA
Nadtochiy L.A., Smirnova S.V., Bronnikova E.P.
Abstract
Realization and introduction of social economic and medical measures, which are aimed at protection and promotion of health of indigenous and small-numbered peoples of North-Eastern Russia do not provide efficient conditions for improvement of health quality. Demographic processes, increased morbidity and changes in its structure require a different approach to establishment of a system of monitoring and development of medical social infrastructure for northern ethnic groups. Development and organization of medical measures should be realized in association with specific characteristics of gene- and phenotype-caused mechanisms of adaptation, that have been formed during many thousands of years in indigenous and small-numbered peoples.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):3-11
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MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN LONG-TIME ADAPTATION PROCESS OBSERVED IN NATIVES OF INTERCONTINENTAL AREAS OF RUSSIA’S NORTHEAST
Averyanova I.V., Maximov A.L., Vdovenko S.I.
Abstract
Based on the study of parameters of physical development, cardio-vascular system, external respiration and gas exchange comparative study of 88 young males among European migrants and those born in 1 and 2 generation, natives of continental area of Magadan region was carried. Found that formation of adaptive shifts are typical of some physiological systems of European newcomers; the direction of these shifts does not change in further generations. This fact allow considering it as an organism response of people residing under more extreme conditions of continental natural-climatic area of the region (in comparison with seaside area), when many parameters of functional systems change and weakly depend on duration of residence under such conditions.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):12-19
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SEASONAL CHANGES IN METABOLISM OF TYVA INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
Krasilnikova V.A., Hasnulin V.I.
Abstract
A comparative study of metabolic and hormonal changes in the indigenous population of the Republic of Tyva (continental Siberia), males and females aged 19-21 years, during spring and autumn periods of the annual cycle, has shown some differences in the annual cycle of metabolic parameters compared to those of the high latitudes residents. There has been found a seasonal pattern of the need of metabolic processes' transition to the type of protein-fat metabolism in autumn and winter. Effectiveness of processes of activation of a protein-lipid exchange in autumn is closely connected with an increased stress response, characterized by amplification of stress hormone cortisol production and increased mental and emotional stress.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):20-24
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MANGANESE NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN BODY CHRONIC INTAKE WITH DRINKING WATER
Mazunina D.L.
Abstract
The review deals with the negative effects of high contents of manganese taken in by a body with drinking water and being potentially dangerous to population health. The data of national and foreign researchers on manganese effects on functional state of the central nervous system, the blood system and blood formation, the process of neuromuscular conduction, the bone structure, the absorbing capacity of the intestine, the excretory system (kidneys), fat and carbohydrate metabolism, the cellular immunity system status and nonspecific resistance have been given. It has been shown that in simultaneous intake of manganese and a number of other metals (nickel, chromium, lead) with drinking water, the risk of adverse effects development in the critical organs and systems increased. A correlation of chronic effects of manganese taken in with drinking water and the increase in the population morbidity rates in obvious and latent forms has been proven. Determination of mechanisms of a toxic effect of manganese on the critical organs and systems allows to define indices, change of which in the body biological fluids gives a possibility to assess more accurately and early prepathological states resulting from harmful effects of environmental factors, including manganese.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):25-31
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ASSESSMENT OF THE PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINATION PROGRAMME IN MANGISTAU REGION, KAZAKHSTAN
Karibayeva I.K., Aimbetova G.E., Amireev S.A., Yeraliyeva L.T., Kyzayeva A.D., Akanov A.A., Tulebayev K.A., Turdaliyeva B.C., Grjibovski A.M.
Abstract
Pneumonia is one of the main contributors to infant mortality in Kazakhstan. In 2010, Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic introduced pneumococcal vaccine into the national immunization scheme. Mangistau region was one of the two first regions where the vaccination became routine from 1 December 2010 using a WHO certified PCV-13 vaccine. The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the number of hospitalizations of children aged 0-5 years for pneumonia in the region before and after introduction of vaccination programme; 2) to compare duration of hospital stay of children with pneumonia before and after introduction of vaccination programme and 3) to compare time between the first visit to medical services and hospitalization of children with pneumonia before and after introduction of vaccination programme. Data to answer these three research questions were analyzed using multivariable negative binomial regression, multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression, respectively. All coefficients and odds ratios (OR) are presented with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). We observed a significant reduction of the number of cases of pneumonia by 22 (95 % CI: 6-38) % in 2011 and by 33 (95 % CI: 16-49) % in 2012 compared to 2009. No changes in the duration of hospital stay (β = 0.28; 95 % CI: -0.06; 0.64) or the number of days (0-6 vs. 7 days or more) between the first contact with the healthcare system (OR = 1.0; 95 % ДИ: 0.8-1.2) and hospitalization were found. Our results suggest that the introduction of vaccination against pneumococcal infection contributed to the overall reduction of the number of cases of pneumonia among children aged 0-5 years in Mangistau region, Kazakhstan.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):32-39
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MENINGOCOCCEMIA IN CHILDREN: FACTORS INFLUENCING OUTCOME
Samodova O.V., Krieger E.A., Titova L.V., Bogdanova A.V.
Abstract
Systemic meningococcal infection requires prompt and adequate medical care. It is considered as an unpredictable disease due to extreme severity of patients' condition and high risk of fatal outcome. The study was aimed to investigation of factors influencing outcomes in children with meningococcemia. Cox regression analysis was applied to estimate effects of age, septic shock, neutropenia, and use of glucocorticoids at the pre-admission stage on the risk of a fatal outcome. The retrospective cohort included all cases of meningococcemia in children that arose in the Arkhangelsk region in 1991-2013. Altogether, 90 children (35 girls and 55 boys) with meningococcemia were included in the study. All death cases occurred during the first three days of illness. The average age was 1 year 2 months. The age younger than 1 year was not associated with fatal outcomes, HR 1.0, 95 % CI 0.5-2.1. The factors influencing outcomes were septic shock, HR 11.9, 95 % CI 1.6-89.2, and neutropenia, HR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.2-2.1. Rapid diagnosis and management of septic shock is critical for successful treatment. Use of intramuscular or intravenous injections of glucocorticoids at the pre-admission stage according to the common recommendations did not improve the outcomes, HR 1.2, 95 % CI 0.6-2.4.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):40-42
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SYNERGETIC BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIO-SPIRITUAL CONCEPTION OF PEPTIC ULCER SOCIAL EPIDEMIC
Sidorov P.I., Sovershaeva E.P.
Abstract
The Peptic Ulcer (PU) social epidemic comprises one tenth of adult population of the globe. The PU polygenic nature required development of the synergetic bio-psycho-socio-spiritual conception that allowed to specify three prenosological fractals: predisposition - ulcerogenic family, latent - ulcerogenic diathesis, initial - a preulcerous state, and three nosological fractals: a full-scale clinical picture, chronization and an outcome. There have been proposed criteria of a social PU epidemic, a destructive social epidemic and a pandemy. The multidisciplinary program of preventive-correctional and medical-rehabilitation aid has been grounded.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):43-51
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PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF PERSONAL ADAPTIVE CAPACITY IN TVER REGION FIREFIGHTERS AT THE UNITIAL WORKING STAGE
Vlasenko N.Y., Bodurova D.F., Makarova I.I.
Abstract
Personal adaptive capacity was evaluated in 248 firefighters (age 20-29 years) of the Tver region upon entering employment and after a year of service. Using the psychodiagnostic complex "Multipsikhometr-05", three indicators of psychophysiological techniques (preparedness for emergency action, plasticity and tolerance of the nervous system) were studied. It has been detected that the PAC level of all the respondents was high. The PAC level decreased significantly in 25 % of the firefighters (the risk group) and remained high in 75 % of the respondents (the main group) after a year of service. The values of preparedness for emergency action for all the firefighters were high throughout the year. The average values of plasticity of the nervous system had initial significantly lower rates in the firefighters of the risk group in comparison with the main group. After a year of service, the average values of the parameters of the techniques of plasticity and tolerance of the nervous system decreased significantly in the risk group. With the ANOVA use, it has been found that plasticity of the nervous system was the only significant PAC psychophysiological predictor. This indicator is recommended to be used in firefighters' professional selection and annual monitoring of their psychological state.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):52-57
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THERAPEUTIC SERVICE OF KARELIAN FRONT HOSPITAL BASE IN 1942-1945
Martushov S.I., Bykov V.P., Mariandyshev A.O.
Abstract
The number of therapeutic beds amounted to 20.3 % of the total bed capacity of the hospital base in the time of its maximal load. In the structure of general internal diseases, the lung and pleura diseases prevailed - 39.3 %, as well as metabolic diseases (nutritional dystrophy and hypovitaminosis) - 24.7 %, the cardiovascular system diseases - 9.2 %. The percentage of tuberculosis patients over 90% (among the lung and pleura diseases) seems to be overestimated because of the diagnostic limitations in the wartime. Drug provision of the Therapeutic Service was poor, that was the reason of treatment prolongation. 46.5 % of officers and soldiers recovered and stepped back to service, 21.9 % were recognized as disabled persons. The hospital mortality was 2.94 %.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2015;(3):58-61
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