No 11 (2020)

Articles

Hygienic assessment of the impact of emissions from the body sewage sludge landfill on public health

Mironenko O.V., Kiselev A.V., Magomedov K.K., Pankin A.V., Suvorova O.K., Fedorova E.A.

Abstract

The aim was to the assess the health impact of substances measured in the air originating from the decomposition of organic components of sewage sludge in the landfill. Methods: The study was performed at the Severny landfill in a suburb of Saint Petersburg. Sanitary and chemical methods of landfill emissions research we applied. Health risk assessment of the chemicals polluting the air was used. Results. In total, 30 pollutants are emitted from the landfill to the air with the total emission of 768.11 tons/year. The main pollutant was methane. The emissions contained 12 pollutants with a carcinogenic effect. A total of 18 substances comprised 99.9 % of the total index of non-carcinogenic hazard with dihydrosulfide (hydrogen sulfide), formaldehyde and ammonia being the main contributors. Conclusions. The maximum values of carcinogenic risk from exposure to formaldehyde at the calculated points reached 5.8x10-6. The levels of individual carcinogenic risk from formaldehyde exposure correspond to the second risk range (maximum permissible). The value of the total individual carcinogenic risk does not exceed the value of 7.4E-06. The maximum values of the hazard factors for chronic exposure are due to hydrogen sulfide - 0.27. The maximum values of the exposure hazard index at calculated points on the respiratory system are 0.46; on the immune system - 0.16; on the eyes - 0.15. These risk levels were rated as minimal.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):4-13
pages 4-13 views

Relationship of cytokine profile indicators and changes in neuroenergy exchange in patients with vibration disease

Shevchenko O.I., Bodienkova G.M., Lakhman O.L., Boklazhenko E.V.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess changes in serum concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with vibration disease (VD). Methods. In total, 28 patients with VD associated with the combined effects of local and general vibration comprised the study group while 24 men were included in the reference group with no exposure to vibration in their professional activities. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IFN-y) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of neuroenergy exchange was assessed using the neuroenergy mapping method based on measuring the levels of constant potential (DC-potential level). Data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student test, Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's angular transformation method and Spearman's rank correlation. Results. The proportion of study participants with increased brain DC-potential level was greater (67.9 %) among patients with VD (p = 0.001). The concentration of IL-8 was 24.29 (14.42-65.16) pg / ml in the VD-group vs. 14.35 (6.24-19.14) pg / ml. in the comparison group. Concentration of IFN-y - was 21.38 (1.68-94.28) pg / ml. in the VD-group vs. 0.01 (0.01-0.28) pg / ml in the reference group. We observed significant correlations between the levels of IL-4, IL-8, TNF-γ and DC-potential (rs = 0.61; 0.55; 0.57, respectively) suggesting their role in disruption of the processes of neuroenergy exchange. Conclusions. More than two thirds of patients with VD have an increased DC-potential level and greater concentrations of IL-8 and TNF-y. Disrupted functioning of the mechanisms of cytokine regulation seems to be associated with neuuroenergy exchange and may activate neuroinflammatory processes.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):14-19
pages 14-19 views

Changes in cardiovascular indices and bioelectric activity of the brain in response to cold exposure in young men

Krivonogova E.V., Demin D.B., Krivonogova O.V., Poskotinova L.V.

Abstract

The aim was to study changes in cardiovascular indices and electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics in response to short-term general air cooling of the body in young adults. Methods. The sample consisted of 13 healthy men aged 18-21 years who were permanent residents of the city of Arkhangelsk (Northwest Russia). The spectral power (SP) of EEG rhythms was assessed using an electroencephalograph (Neurosoft, Russia). Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured using Varikard equipment (Ramena, Russia). Temperature of the skin surface was measured with an electronic infrared thermometer B Well WF - 1000 (Switzerland). Blood pressure were recorded with an automatic tonometer A&D Medical UA-668 (Japan). All indicators were measured prior to the exposure, under cold exposure in the cold chamber "USF-25N" (-20C, 10 minutes) and 5 and 10 minutes after the exposure. Results. Two types of changes in the study parameters were identified. In type I reaction there was is a greater decrease in body surface temperature, an increase in blood pressure (BP), HRV indicators (RMSSD, pNN50%, TP) and minimal changes in the bioelectrical activity of the brain during the exposure. During the recovery period, systolic BP did not decrease and HRV indicators recovered slowly. In type II reaction, there was a smaller decrease in body surface temperature, an increase in the а-0 activity of the EEG in the anterotemporal regions of the brain and an increase in the 0-activity of the EEG in the frontal regions on the right combined with a increase in HRV (SDNN, pNN50%, RMSSD, TP), an increase in BP during exposure with return to initial values after the exposure. Conclusions. We identified two types of reactions to cold exposure in young men that may reflect the heterogeneity of adaptive reactions of the body's regulatory systems to cold.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):20-26
pages 20-26 views

The problem of statistical stability of parameters of the cardiovascular system

Eskov V.V., Orlov E.V., Bashkatova Y.V., Melnikova E.G.

Abstract

One of the main problems in the theory of homeostasis and the theory of functional systems of the human body is the problem of choosing standards. It turned out that the statistics poorly diagnose the norm (standard) of function of the human body. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of using a new quantitative criteria - the area of the pseudoattractors (Eskov's quasiattractors) as standard (physiological norm) parameters. Methods. In a group of 15 women (mean age = 28 ± 2,3 years, who have been living in the North of the Russian Federation in Ugra for more than 15 years), cardiointerval samples were recorded (300 cardiointervals per sample) 225 times for each test subject. As a result, we calculated 15 matrices of pairwise comparisons of samples. A total of 225 matrices for all 15 subjects and 225 areas of S pseudoattractors for each subject were created. Area S was found from the formula S = Δx1 х Δх2, where Ax1 is the range for cardio intervals, and Δx2 is the range for Δx1. Results. All 225 matrices for 15 subjects showed showed a substantial variability in samples of cardiointervals. However, S areas showed statistical stability for each of 15 subjects. Conclusions: further application of statistics in the calculation of cardio intervals is problematic due to the statistical instability of the samples, therefore we propose to use areas of pseudoattractors to assess the physiological norm.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):27-31
pages 27-31 views

Cellular immune response following head injury

Popovskaya E.V., Filippova O.E., Shashkova E.Y., Shchegoleva L.S.

Abstract

The incidence of head injuries is increasing particularly in cities. The aim was to study cellular immune response during the first 24 hours following head injuries among men aged 41-60 years and older. Methods: Altogether, 90 men aged 41-60 years were enrolled within 24 hours after head injury. Phenotypes of lymphocytes CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD71+, CD8+, CD16+, CD25+, CD95+, HLA-DR+, CD10+ were studied. Results. Proportion of mature T-lymphocytes increased in parallel with the increase of severity of trauma (11.1 % in mild traumas vs. 37.5 % in severe cases). In cases with average degree of trauma low concentrations of activators were detected (CD25+ = 0,23 ± 0,03 • 109 c/l; CD71+ = 0,24 ± 0,01 • 109 c/l and HLA-DR+ = 0,26 ± 0,02 • 109 c/l) combined with T-cells deficiency. Concentrations of CD8+ and CD95+ increase with the severity of the trauma: (0,64 ± 0,04) - (0,76 ± 0,01) • 109 c/l; (0,51 ± 0,02) - (0,56 ± 0,01) • 109 c/l, respectively. Conclusions: An increase in helper-suppressor ratio (k > 2) due to T-helpers as a compensation for low concentrations of CD5+, CD3+, CD25+, CD71+ and HLA-DR+ seems to be associated with favorable prognosis. In severe head injuries a decrease in helpersuppressor ratio (k < 2) accompanied by CD5+, CD3+ deficiency can be explained by an increase in CD8+. An increase in cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes during the first 24 hours after trauma may be associated with unfavorable prognosis.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):32-37
pages 32-37 views

Anthropometric characteristics of 8-14 years old children in three Russian cities

Gritsinskaya V.L., Novikova V.P., Gladkaya V.S.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess and compare the main anthropometric characteristics of children aged 8 to 14 years living in three northern cities. Methods. The consisted of schoolchildren living in St. Petersburg (n = 4 621), Surgut (n = 3 606) and Novy Urengoy (n = 1 101). Indigenous ethnic groups were not included. Body weight and height were measured. Arithmetic means (M), standard deviations (SD) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Between-groups comparisons were performed by independent-samples t-tests. The level of significance was set as 0,017 using Bonferroni correction. Results. Schoolchildren in Surgut were taller in most age- and gender groups than their counterparts from St. Petersburg. Significant differences in height were observed among 8, 9 and 11 year-olds (p = 0.001 p = 0.015). In weight the differences were observed among 11 and 14 years old (p = 0.004 ÷ 0.006). Significant differences between children in Surgut and Novy Urengoy were observed for body length among 8, 9, 11, 13 and 14 year-olds (p <0.001 ÷ p = 0.01). Children in St. Petersburg were taller at the age of 14 than in their peers in Novy Urengoy (p = 0.002). The puberty intersection of somatometric indicators in boys and girls is more pronounced in schoolchildren of Novy Urengoy: girls were taller than boys at 11 (147.2 and 144.9 cm; p = 0.012) and 12 years (151.7 and 151.1 cm) and heavier at the age of 11 (41.8 and 40.0 kg; p = 0.012), 12 (45.77 and 44.4 kg; p = 0.013) and 13 (52.8 and 52.2 kg) years. Girls were taller than at the age of 12 in Surgut (155.6 and 153.1 cm; p < 0.001) and St. Petersburg (154.3 and 153.0 cm; p = 0.002). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that physical development in schoolchildren may depend on living conditions. Another finding is that sexual dimorphism decreases at puberty. Our results can be used as a guide when conducting medical examination of schoolchildren.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):38-45
pages 38-45 views

Female mortality in Russia

Sabgaida T.P., Rostovskaya T.K.

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to analyze female mortality in Russia and to elucidate the potential causes of the time lag between gender-specific trends in mortality in the Russian Federation. Methods: We analysed the differences of temporal trends in mortality between residents of urban and rural areas, Moscow and St. Petersburg as well as the main causes of death among women in 1965, 1985, 2003, 2014 and 2018 using the data from the national statistical agency - Rosstat. Results: Our findings suggest that the slowdown in the decrease of female mortality originates from conditions and lifestyle during the period of Perestroika. The main contribution to the lag of changes in female mortality from male rates was made by cohort of women whose childhood and growing up took place in that period. Mortality from diseases of the digestive system increased by 11.9 % and mortality from infectious diseases increased by 170% in 35-44 years old women. Moreover, mortality from alcohol-attributable causes and injecting drug use has been increasing. Contribution of alcohol to female mortality is more pronounced in rural areas whole drug abuse affects urban women to a greater extent. Conclusions: The increased mortality of women aged 35-44 years after 2013 can be at least partly explained by the fact that health-related behaviour of this cohort of women was developed during the times of the social crisis.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):46-52
pages 46-52 views

Epidemiology of malignant neoplasms in the main cities of the Siberian federal district

Choynzonov E.L., Zhuikova L.D., Ananina O.A., Odinstova I.N., Valkov M.Y., Pikalova L.V.

Abstract

The aim: To analyze the incidence of malignant neoplasms in the main cities of the Siberian Federal District of Russia. Methods: Data were collected from annual forms of the Federal Statistical Monitoring N 7 "Information about Malignant Neoplasms" for the cities of Gorno-Altaisk, Ulan-Ude, Abakan, Barnaul, Chita, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Omsk and Tomsk. Main epidemiological indicators were calculated by gender for the period from 2004-2018. Results. In 2018, 31 636 cases of cancer were registered in the cities which accounts for 39.9 % of the total number of the malignant neoplasms in whole District. The most common malignancies in male population were lung cancer (16.3 %), prostate cancer (12.5 %), skin melanoma (12.1 %), colorectal cancer (11.7 %) and stomach cancer (7.1 %). Among women, breast cancer (21.5 %), skin melanoma (17.3 %), colorectal cancer (11.5 %), uterine cancer (6.4 %) and cervical cancer (5.0 %) were the most common malignancies. Standardized rates of the increased overall cancer incidence from 271,0 to 287,2 %000 during the study period. The highest standardized incidence rate was observed in the cities of Ulan-Ude (267.9 %000), Chita (253.6 %000), Krasnoyarsk (308.2 %000) and Omsk (305.9 %000). According to prediction model, the cancer incidence may increase to 307.4 %000 by 2025. Conclusion. Urban population of Siberia has high incidence of malignant neoplasms. The incidence rate has been gradually increasing over the years and may further increase by 2025 if no measures are taken.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):53-59
pages 53-59 views

Alcohol as a risk factor for accidents among bus drivers

Kekelidze Z.I., Polyansky D.A., Shport S.V., Soloviev A.G.

Abstract

Traffic safety is an important issue that needs to be taken into account in developing national policy. Several causes of accidents along the "diver-vehicle-road-environment" chain have been identified, although alcohol consumption seems to be the most important preventable cause. The aim of this paper is to describe the main activities to detect alcohol-related problems among bus drivers with the further going aim to develop public health strategies to decrease the number of traffic accidents. Methods. We analyzed normative documents, laws and edicts of the Russian Ministry of Health directed at reduction of traffic accidents associated with alcohol intoxication among drivers. Results. The main analytic approaches to study risk factors for traffic accidents including alcohol consumption practiced by intersectoral organizations are presented. Special emphasis is given to changes in legal limits of blood alcohol concentrations among the drivers in Russia. The analysis suggests that occupation as a drivers of public buses poses greater demands to physical and mental health. Psychological traits of bus drivers were summarized. Difficulties associated with detection of alcohol abuse and use of other substances among bus drivers were analyzed. The fact of driving a bus under the influence of alcohol should be treated as the use of psychoactive substances with health-related consequences. Data related to substance use obtained at medical checkup of drivers at the beginning of the shift can be transferred to narcological dispensaries (abuse clinics). Conclusions: the suggested algorithm of screening for substance abuse among bus drivers can become the basis for development of medical and psychological prevention directed at reduction of the number of traffic accidents associated with alcohol.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2020;(11):60-64
pages 60-64 views

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