No 4 (2019)

Articles
SPATIAL MODELING OF MORTALITY AND AIR CONTAMINATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN
Askarov R.A., Lakman I.A., Sadikova L.F., Karelin A.O., Askarova Z.F.
Abstract
The aim of the was to study quantitative effects of chemical pollution of atmospheric air by gaseous, liquid, solid substances on the overall population mortality in the Republic of Bashkortostan using mathematical models with spatial lags. Methods. The data were obtained from the official statistics from the Territorial Body of the Federal State Statistics Service for the Republic of Bashkortostan (table C 51 "Distribution of deceased by sex, age groups and causes of death"). The data from 54 municipalities and 21 towns of Bashkortostan from 2002 to 2015 were analysed. Spatial regression methods were applied. Moran and Geary coefficients were used to estimate the presence of spatial autocorrelation links; Spatial autoregressive (SAR) models were used to estimate the effect of emissions on mortality rates. Results. The best fit was provided by the SAR model, according to which, an increase in the number of emissions per 1 ton in a municipality is associated with an increase in the mortality for men by 2,33 cases per 1000. The corresponding data for the total population was 2,02 cases per 1000. However, according to the spatial lag (SDM model), no statistically significant effects on mortality was detected. Conclusion. Results of spatial modeling are in line with the findings on direct associations between gaseous and liquid emissions and total mortality and mortality among men in the same municipality. At the same time, we did not find the evidence indirect spatial influence on mortality.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):4-9
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DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN NATURAL AND URBAN ENVIRONMENTS OF KARELIA, NORTHWEST RUSSIA
Gorbunov A.V., Lyapunov S.M., Ermolaev B.V.
Abstract
Purpose. We studied accumulation of mercury in the main natural and urban environments of Karelia, Northwest Russia, and assessed potential sources of mercury in a human body. Methods. A total of 200 samples of soil, vegetation, water, surface water, sediments and fish were collected. An analysis of samples was carried out by cold steam atomic absorption method. Diagrams of mercury distribution in soil, birch leaves and lichens were created. Data on fish consumption by the population of Petrozavodsk and Medvezhyegorsk are studied. The concentration of mercury in fish muscles most consumed in Petrozavodsk and Medvezhyegorsk was estimated. Results. Levels of mercury accumulation in soil and vegetation in the studied settings do not exceed the standards adopted in Russia. The same was observed for mercury concentration in water and sediments. Calculation of mercury intake showed that there is a 3-fold difference in the annual intake of mercury in the human body due to differences in the structure of fish consumption in these cities. Summary. External factors do not lead to higher concentrations of mercury in the main natural and urban environments of Karelia. High concentration of mercury in biological samples of pregnant women in the Medvezhyegorsk district is due to the peculiarities of the diet of the local population - the predominance in the diet of freshwater fish (pike, perch, pike perch) caught directly in the Onega lake.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):10-17
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SYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF STUDENTS BEFORE AND AFTER TRANSLATITUDE TRAVELS
Filatov M.A., Ilyashenko L.K., Makeeva S.V.
Abstract
The use of instrumental and non-invasive methods using a computer provides an opportunity to assess the state of the complex of psychophysiological functions and identify the most significant parameters in various environmental conditions. The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of two approaches: traditional statistical methods and artificial neural networks (ANN) based on a supercomputer in the study of the influence of translatitude relocation on psychophysiological functions. Methods: In total, 146 students, permamnent residents of Surgut from the 1st through the 7th grades were examined before and after travels from the north to the south of the Russian Federation and back. The state of the psychophysiological functions of students was recorded by using a patented software. The ANN was used to establish the differences in the state of psychophysiological parameters between the groups of boys and girls before from the north to the south (Tuapse) and after arriving back to Surgut. After multiple repetitions (p→∞) of this procedure, for each Pi after the j-th repetition, we obtained the total number of chaotic generation of values of weight coefficient wif processed in the framework of traditional stochastic (the distribution functions f(x) were determined). Moreover, these analyses were repeated in the sets р1 = 50, р2 = 100, р3 = 1 000. Results: We found that the dynamics of parameters of psychophysiological functions of characterizing the concentration and memory states, increased sharply and significantly in changes of the variation coefficients (Δwi) with a large number of neural network iterations in the binary classification mode. Conclusion: ANN in the mode of multiple iterations (P. ≥ 1 000) can provide a solution to the problem of system synthesis - identification of the most significant diagnostic features in the work of psychophysiological functions before and after short term north-south travels.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):18-24
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RELATIONS BETWEEN CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTES AND PROLACTIN IN PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATION OF THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN WOMEN OF THE ARKHANGELSK AND MURMANSK REGIONS
Philippova 1.E., Shashkova E.Y., Shchegoleva L.S.
Abstract
Purpose: to study relations between cytotoxic activity of adaptive immune response and prolactin in healthy female residents of the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions. Methods. The sample consisted of 145 women aged 20-49 years. Lymphocytes CD3+, CD5+, CD8+, HLA-DR+ were phenotyped using Nicon Eclipse 50i microscope. Serum immunoglobulins E were assessed by ELISA method using on Stat Fax 2100. Prolactin levels were measured using ELISYS Uno (Germany). All data were analyzed using Statistica 6.0 software. Results. Women aged 20-39 and 40-49 years respectively from the Murmansk region had higher counts of leucosytes (7.77 ± 0.69) and (9.50 ± 1.28) • 109 C/l, CD8 (0.49 ± 0.07) and (0.66 ± 0.13) • 109 C/l; HLA-DR-activation (0.46 ± 0.07) and (0.62 ± 0.13) • 109 C/l and prolactin levels (29.30 ± 14.52) and (18.40 ± 3.24) ng/ml, compared to women from the Arkhangelsk region. CD3 levels were 0.47 ± 0.20 and 0.37 ± 0.01 • 109 C/l while the corresponding numbers for CD5 were 0.50 ± 1.20 and 0.47 ± 0.09 • 109 C/l. The most widespread defect of immune protection among residents of the Russian North is a low level of active phagocytes and deficiency of T-lymphocytes (CD3, CD5) irrespective of the area of residence and age. Conclusions. The ratio of immunohormonal parameters in women is characterized by the decrease of the activity of adaptive immunity related to its humoral regulation (HLA-DR, IgE) combined with high cellular mediated cytotoxicity (CD8) and the increased concentration of prolactin, which is more typical for women aged 40+ in the Murmansk region. An increase in CD8 counts combined with CD3 and CD5 deficiency is a reserve mechanism of immune protection.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):25-30
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REGIONAL ASPECTS OF MORTALITY IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA)
Klimova T.M., Kuzmina A.A., Malogulova I.S.
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to analyze geographic variations in mortality in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and factors associated with mortality. Methods. Mortality data were obtained from the republican statistical service. Secular trends were studied by the least squares method. Direct standardization was applied to eliminate heterogeneity in the age structure of the population of the municipalities of the republic. The division of territories into cluster with different levels of total mortality was performed using hierarchical clusteranalysis. Results. Significant geographic variations in mortality levels were observed both before and after standardization. The cluster with high mortality rate differed from the others in mortality from neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases and causes of death caused by alcohol. At the same time, there were no significant differences between cluster by gender, ecologic and socio-economic indicator. Sufficient capacity of outpatient and polyclinic organizations, provision of personnel and beds in the republic was observed. Negative collation between the number of persons with a high educational level and total mortality (г = -0.544, P. = 0.001), mortality from cardiovascular diseases (г = -0.755, P. < 0.001), external causes (г = -0.465, P. = 0.045), traffic injuries (г = -0.480, P. = 0.038), from causes by alcohol (г = -0.518, P. = 0.023) were found. In the least favorable cluster the number of people with high education was significantly lower than in the other two. Conclusions. We found significant variations in mortality across the 35 settings in the republic. Activities directed at health promotion and health protection corresponding to realities of contemporary society should be developed with the further going aim to reduce mortality in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):31-38
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MEDICAL AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TRACE CONCENTRATIONS OF STABLE BARIUM AND STRONTIUM AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE BODY. A REVIEW
Chashchin V.P., Ivanova O.M., Ivanova M.A.
Abstract
A systematic analysis of the published results of studies on the effect of trace elements such as barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr) on functional systems of the human body. With sufficient intake of stable Sr isotopes, a decrease in pulse arterial pressure is observed in the morning, associated with a decrease in mortality among patients with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension. There is a statistically significant linear relationship between the ratio of the Ba and Sr content in the hair and the circadian heart rate index, that is associated with an increase in the incidence of thrombosis, particularly during treatment with the Strontium ranelate at therapeutic doses. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the Ba tissue concentrations and the increase in the patient's age that is also associated with an increase in the risk of progressive degenerative brain disorders, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The possible association of Sr and Ba tissue concentrations in the body with the risk of Kashin-Beck disease is discussed. For early detection of this disease in the population residing endemic areas and the areas of its sporadic cases, it is advisable to evaluate the function of active flexion of the distal joints of II - IV fingers of the hands in people aged 4 to 26 years with imaging the bone structure of these fingers in the people at risk within acceptable doses of radiation.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):39-47
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ЕTHNIC PECULIARITIES OF FAT MASS DISTRIBUTION AMONG WOMEN IN THE KHAKASSIA REPUBLIC
Gladkaya V.S., Gritsinskaya V.L.
Abstract
The aim - to identify ethnic peculiaritie of age-related adipose tissue distribution among women in the Khakassia Republic. Methods. We examined 1 384 women aged 16-20 years and 21-35 both Asian and Caucasian. Body height, weight, chest- and buttocks circumferences we measures. In addition eight site skin-fold measurements were taken. Body mass index and components of body composition were calculated. Results. Body weight, body mass index, chest and buttocks circumferences were greater among Caucasian women compared to Asians. The absolute amount of adipose tissue in Caucasians exceeded correspondent values for Asians. Both absolute and relative fat mass increased with age in both groups. Skinfold thickness was greater in higher hip and lower leg compared to other sites in the younger age-group of Caucasian women. In the older Caucasian age-group skinfold thickness was greater on on the upper and lower extremities compared to other sites. To the contrary, skinfold thickness was greater on the body in Asian women. Conclusion. Ethnic peculiarities of the distribution of adipose tissue in Caucasian and Asian women should be taken into account using personalised approach to prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the metabolic syndrome among residents of Khakassia Republic.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):48-53
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MEDICAL RESEARCH IN KAZAKHSTAN AS PERCEIVED BY RESEARCHERS, HEALTH MANAGERS AND PRACTICING PHYSICIANS
Izekenova A.K., Ramazanova M.A., Stepkina Y.L., Zikriyarova S.M., Kozhekenova Z.A., Aimbetova G.E., Bekbotayev Y.K., Kumar A.B., Izekenova A.K., Kalmahanov S.B., Grjibovski -.M.
Abstract
The state of health research in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States has been called as drastic in a recent evaluation. Several efforts have been made to break isolation of Kazakhstan from international medical research, education and practice. We studied how researchers, health managers and practicing physicians perceive the current status of medical research in Kazakhstan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed at 3 research institutes, 3 research centers and 2 clinics in Almaty, the former capital of Kazakhstan. Altogether, 207 (99 %) employees involved in research participated and were interviewed by the first author. Researchers, health managers and physicians comprised 63.8 %, 16.4 % and 19.8 % of the sample. Categorical data were analyzed using chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Results: Although 38 % of the participants had the highest research degrees, less than 1% of the sample had international publications. More than three thirds of researchers reported unsatisfactory transparency of financing research compared to health managers and physicians (P. < 0.001). Considerable variability between the groups was observed in the perception of the agreement between the research conducted and health needs of the vulnerable groups (P. < 0.001). Researchers were more likely to report unsatisfactory career opportunities in research than other studied groups (P. = 0.025). Conclusions: The perception of our responders of the current state of health research in Kazakhstan raise concerns about the quality of doctoral degrees without international publications, transparency of funding and agreement between the research conducted and real health needs in the country and existing conditions for disseminating and implementation of the results of health research in practice.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):54-59
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FEASIBILITY STUDY OF GROUP ESTIMATION OF THERMAL COMFORT USING FANGER’S THEORY APPLIED TO PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENT WORKING CAPABILITIES
Huseynova M.V.
Abstract
The paper presents a possibility to use an averaged integrated estimation of thermal comfort using Fanger's theory applied to people with different working capabilities. Taking into account the fact that Fanger's concept of thermal comfort is based on linear association between parameters in was concluded that utilization of averaged integrated estimate for people with different working capabilities for group estimation of temperature comfort is possible.
Ekologiya cheloveka (Human Ecology). 2019;(4):60-64
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